Groups of animals

Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Bilateria

Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Porifera and Ctenophora diverged before a clade (ParaHoxoa) that gave rise to the Bilateria, Cnidaria and Placozoa. Another study based on the presence/absence of introns suggests that Cnidaria, Porifera and Placozoa may be a sister group of Bilateria and Ctenophora. A December, 2013, study, and a June, 2014, studyboth concluded, using entirely distinct methodologies, that the cladogram of animals is:

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